Light to energy: how solar panels work


Solar panels, or as they call it “Solar Panels”, are a device that converts solar energy into electricity. This device consists of many photocells connected to a common circuit.


The module, which is located on a metal base, is based on two types of silicon. On the panels themselves, there are metal stiffeners, and transparent glass is installed on top. In fact, the solar cell device is not too complicated to understand the topic.

Principle of operation:

Considering the principle of operation of a solar battery, we note that semiconductor photocells consist of two layers with different conductivity:

  • cathode (material with extra electrons in atoms, n-type)
  • anode (material with missing electrons in atoms, p-type)

When the sun's rays hit the photocell, the electrons leave the atoms, and they are captured by the p-type. The electric field makes the atoms move in a closed circle, which allows them to receive energy. While this process is going on
This ensures the movement of electrons in a closed circle formed by photocells and a battery. While this process is going on, the energy generated during it is stored in batteries.